Africason is a musician and a die-hard believer in Africa.
G.M. Trevelyan, History of England (1912), 26.
I have not been able to discover whether the 'droit de seigneur' existed in Britain: in some European countries the lord of the manor had the right to spend the first night with a newly married serf bride.
See, e.g., William D. Phillips, Slavery from Roman Times to the Early Transatlantic Trade (Manchester, 1985); Daniel J. Vitkus, Piracy, Slavery and Redemption: Barbary Captivity Narratives from Early Modern England (New York, 2001); Robert Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters:
White Slavery in the Mediterranean (New York, 2003).
Miranda Kaufman, '"The speedy transportation of blackamoores": Caspar Van Senden's search for
Africans and profit in Elizabethan England', BASA Newsletter, 45 (Apr. 2006), 10-114. Back to (4)
See, e.g., Ronald Segal, Islam's Black Slaves (London, 2003); Humphrey J. Fisher, Slavery in the
History of Muslim Black Africa (London, 2001); Shihan de Silva Jayasuriya, 'Trading on a thalassic network: African migrations across the Indian Ocean', International Journal of Social Science, 188 (June 2006).
On Turkish enslavement of Africans, see Albertine Jwaideh and J.W. Cox, 'The Black slaves of
Turkish Arabia during the nineteenth century' (paper delivered at African History Seminar, School of
Oriental and Advanced Studies, 18 May 1988).
The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean, ed. Shihan de Silva Jayasuriya and Richard Rathbone (Trenton, N.J., 2003).
See, e.g., Edward Reynolds, Stand the Storm: a History of the Atlantic Slave Trade (London, 1985);
Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade (London, 1997).
Some African polities were centralised kingdoms, some were vast empires, while others lived in more democratic societies under chiefs and elders.
From 1796 to 1806 Britain exported 1,615,309 guns to west Africa; many were sub-standard (Forced
Migration, ed. J.E. Inikori (London, 1982), 133).
There is ongoing debate about numbers. See, e.g., Philip D. Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade (Madison, Wis., 1969); J.E. Inikori, 'Measuring the Atlantic slave trade: an assessment of Curtin and
Anstey', Journal of African History, 17 (1976), 197-223; Paul E. Lovejoy, 'The volume of the
Atlantic slave trade: a synthesis', Journal of African History, 23 (1982), 473-501; David Eltis et al.,
The Transatlantic Slave Trade 1527–1867: a Database on CD-ROM (1999).
See, e.g., Sylviane A. Diouf, Fighting the Slave Trade (Oxford, 2003).
See, e.g., Ann O'Hear, Power Relations in Nigeria: Ilorin Slaves and their Successors (Rochester, N.Y., 1997).
Fisher, Slavery in the History of Muslim Black Africa.
For a graphic account, see Nick Hazlewood, The Queen's Slave Trader (London, 2005).
See Melinda Elder, The Slave Trade and the Economic Development of 18th Century Lancaster (Halifax, 1992); James Rawley, London, Metropolis of the Slave Trade (Columbia, Mo., 2003); Nigel
Tattersfield, The Forgotten Trade (London, 1998).
Lovejoy, 'Volume of the Atlantic slave trade', 483, 497.
There are many books on the abolitionists: see, e.g., Robin Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial
Slavery (London, 1988); The Abolition of the Atlantic Slave Trade, ed. David Eltis and James
Walvin (Madison, Wis., 1981); Suzanne Miers, Britain and the Ending of the Slave Trade (London, 1975). The effect of the 'abolition' was first challenged in the much disputed work of Eric Williams,
Capitalism and Slavery (1944; London, 1964).
Vincent Caretta, Olaudah Equiano, 'The Interesting Narrative' and Other Writings (London, 1995);
The Letters of Ignatius Sancho, ed. P. Edwards and Polly Rewt (Edinburgh, 1994); Reyahn King et al., Ignatius Sancho (London, 1997); Ellen Gibson Wilson, Thomas Clarkson: a Biography (London, 1989). Unchained Voices, ed. Vincent Caretta (Lexington, Ky., 1996) contains Ukwasaw
Gronniosaw's 1772 publication, and excerpts from Ottobah Cugoano's Thoughts and Sentiments of the Evil and Wicked Traffic of the Slavery and Commerce in Human Beings (1787).
See, e.g., J.R. Oldfield, Popular Politics and British Anti-Slavery (London, 1998).
For information on this, see Marika Sherwood, After Abolition (London, 2007).
See Claire Midgley, Women Against Slavery (London, 1992).
See, e.g., Richard B. Allen, 'Licentious and unbridled proceedings: the illegal slave trade to Mauritius and the Seychelles during the early nineteenth century', Journal of African History, 42.1 (2001);
Shihan de Silva Jayasuriya, 'Indian Ocean cultures; African migration and identity', Ziff Journal: Monsoons and Migration, 2 (2005).
See Marika Sherwood, 'Black people in Tudor England', History Today (Oct. 2003). Back to (24)
On Black peoples in Britain, the most comprehensive book is Peter Fryer, Staying Power (London, 1985).
See, e.g., D. Eltis, 'The British contribution to the nineteenth-century transatlantic slave trade',
Economic History Review, 32 (1979), 211-27; Sherwood,After Abolition. Back to (26)
B. Benedict, 'Slavery and indenture in Mauritius and Seychelles', in James L. Watson, Asian and African Systems of Slavery (Oxford, 1980).
Sir Bartle Frere is quoted in Lionel Caplan, 'Power and status in south Asian society', in Watson, Asian and African Systems of Slavery.
For details, see Sherwood, After Abolition and Marika Sherwood, 'Manchester, Liverpool and slavery', North West Labour History Journal, 32 (Sept. 2007). See also Williams, Capitalism and
Slavery; David Eltis, Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (Oxford, 1987); J.E. Inikori, 'Slavery and the development of industrial capitalism in England', Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 17 (1987), 771-93.
The quotation is from Eric A. Walker, Colonies (Cambridge, 1944), 98. On forced labour in Africa and a fine denunciation of Lord Lugard, see Toyin Falola, 'Slavery and pawnship in the Yoruba economy in the nineteenth Century', in Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World, ed.
Paul E. Lovejoy and Nicholas Rogers (London, 1994); Sherwood, After Abolition, 127-41.
On, e.g., weaving, see Adiele Afigbo, Weaving Tradition in Ibgo-land (Lagos, 1985); Colleen E. Kriger, Cloth in West African History (Lanham, 2006).
See, e.g., Inikori, Forced Migration.