The lost history
History of slave trade
Education and colonialism
What is Satan
The dead end of African literature
Intellectual slavery PDF
Dr. Amos Wilson
Kaba Hiawatha Kamene
John G. Jackson
Cheikh Anta Diop
Yosef Ben Jochannan
John H. Clarke
Ivan Van Sertima
Great African Kingdoms Before the Coming of Europeans
Some Great African Empires Before the Coming of Europeans
While Europe was experiencing its Dark Ages, a period of intellectual, cultural and economic regression from the sixth to the 13th centuries, Africans on the other hand were experiencing an almost continent-wide renaissance after the decline of the Nile Valley civilizations of Egypt and Nubia.
The leading civilizations of this African rebirth were the Axum Empire, the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire, the Songhai Empire, the Ethiopian Empire, the Mossi Kingdoms and the Benin Empire.
The Aksum or Axum Empire was an important military power and trading nation in the area that is now Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, existing from approximately 100 to 940 A.D.
At its height, it was one of only four major international superpowers of its day along with Persia, Rome and China. Axum controlled northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, northern Sudan, southern Egypt, Djibouti, Western Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia, totaling 1.25 million square kilometers, almost half the size of India. Axum traded and projected its influence as far as China and India, where coins minted in Axum were discovered in 1990.
Axum was previously thought to have been founded by Semitic-speaking Sabaeans who crossed the Red Sea from South Arabia (modern Yemen) on the basis of Conti Rossini’s theories but most scholars now agree that when it was founded it was an indigenous African development.
Kingdom of Ghana
Centered in what is today Senegal and Mauritania, the Kingdom of Ghana dominated West Africa between about 750 and 1078 A.D. Famous to North Africans as the “Land of Gold,” Ghana was said to possess sophisticated methods of administration and taxation, large armies, and a monopoly over notoriously well-concealed gold mines.
The king of the Soninke people who founded Ghana never fully embraced Islam, but good relations with Muslim traders were fostered. Ancient Ghana derived power and wealth from gold and the use of the camel increased the quantity of goods that were transported. One Arab writer, Al-Hamdani, describes Ghana as having the richest gold mines on Earth. Ghana was also a great military power. According to one narrative, the king had at his command 200,000 warriors and an additional 40,000 archers.
After the fall of the Kingdom of Ghana, the Mali Empire rose to dominate West Africa. Located on the Niger River to the west of Ghana in what is today Niger and Mali, the empire reached its peak in the 1350s.
The Mali Empire was founded by Mansa (King) Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Mansa Musa. He was the grandson of Sundiata’s half-brother, and led Mali at a time of great prosperity, during which trade tripled. During his rule, Mansa Musa doubled the land area of Mali; it became a larger kingdom than any in Europe at the time.
The cities of Mali became important trading centers for all of West Africa, as well as famous centers of wealth, culture and learning. Timbuktu, an important city in Mali, became one of the major cultural centers not only of Africa but of the entire world. Vast libraries and Islamic universities were built. These became meeting places of the finest poets, scholars and artists of Africa and the Middle East.
The Kingdom of Mali had a semi-democratic government with one of the world’s oldest known constitutions – The Kurukan Fuga.
The Kurukan Fuga of the Mali Empire was created after 1235 by an assembly of nobles to create a government for the newly established empire. The Kurukan Fouga divided the new empire into ruling clans that were represented at a great assembly called the Gbara. The Gbara was the deliberative body of the Mali Empire and was made up of 32 members from around 29 clans. They were given a voice in the government and were a check against the emperor’s (mansa’s) power. It was presided over by a belen-tigui (master of ceremonies) who recognized anyone who wanted to speak including the mansa. The Gbara and the Kurukan Fuga remained in place for over 40o years until 1645.
According to Wikipedia, Disney’s “Lion King” movie was based on the real life narrative of Mansa Sundiata Keita.
The Songhai Empire, also known as the Songhay Empire, was the largest state in African history and the most powerful of the medieval west African states. It expanded rapidly beginning with King Sonni Ali in the 1460s and by 1500s, it had risen to stretch from Cameroon to the Maghreb. In 1360, disputes over succession weakened the Mali Empire, and in the 1430s, Songhai, previously a Mali dependency, gained independence under the Sonni Dynasty. Around thirty years later, Sonni Sulayman Dama attacked Mema, the Mali province west of Timbuktu, paving the way for his successor, Sonni Ali, to turn his country into one of the greatest empires sub-Saharan Africa has ever seen.
Perhaps, it’s most popular leader was Muhammad Askia the Great. At its peak, the Songhai city of Timbuktu became a thriving cultural and commercial center. Arab, Italian and Jewish merchants all gathered for trade. By 1500, the Songhai Empire covered over 1.4 million square kilometers.
The Ethiopian Empire
The Ethiopian Empire also known as Abyssinia, covered a geographical area that the present-day northern half of Ethiopia covers. It existed from approximately 1137 (beginning of Zagwe Dynasty) until 1975 when the monarchy was overthrown in a coup d’état. In 1270, the Zagwe dynasty was overthrown by a king claiming lineage from the Aksumite emperors and, hence, Solomon. The thus-named Solomonic Dynasty was founded and ruled by the Habesha, from whom Abyssinia gets its name.
The Habesha reigned with only a few interruptions from 1270 until the late 20th century. It was under this dynasty that most of Ethiopia’s modern history occurred. During this time, the empire conquered and incorporated virtually all the peoples within modern Ethiopia. They successfully fought off Italian, Arab and Turkish armies and made fruitful contacts with some European powers, especially the Portuguese, with whom they allied in battle against the latter two invaders.
The Mossi Kingdoms were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso which dominated the region of the Upper Volta River for hundreds of years. Increasing power of the Mossi kingdoms resulted in larger conflicts with regional powers. The Kingdom of Yatenga became a key power attacking the Songhai Empire between 1328 and 1477, taking over Timbuktu and sacked the important trading post of Macina.
When Askia Mohammad I became the leader of the Songhai Empire with the desire to spread Islam, he waged a Holy war against the Mossi kingdoms in 1497. Although the Mossi forces were defeated in this effort, they resisted attempts to impose Islam. Although there were a number of jihad states in the region trying to forcibly spread Islam, namely the Massina Empire and the Sokoto Caliphate, the Mossi kingdoms largely retained their traditional religious and ritual practices. Being located near many of the main Islamic states of West Africa, the Mossi kingdoms developed a mixed religious system recognizing some authority for Islam while retaining earlier African spiritual belief systems.
Once a powerful city-state, Benin exists today as a modern African city in what is now south-central Nigeria. The present-day oba (King) of Benin traces the founding of his dynasty to A.D. 1300. The Benin Empire was a pre-colonial Edo state. Until the late 19th century, it was one of the major powers in West Africa. According to one eye witness report written by Olfert Dapper, “The King of Benin can in a single day make 20,000 men ready for war, and, if need be, 180,000, and because of this he has great influence among all the surrounding peoples. . . . His authority stretches over many cities, towns and villages. There is no King thereabouts who, in the possession of so many beautiful cities and towns, is his equal.”
When European merchant ships began to visit West Africa from the 15th century onward, Benin came to control the trade between the inland peoples and the Europeans on the coast. When the British tried to expand their own trade in the 19th century, the Benin warriors killed their envoys.
Jesus Christ was a black man- according to the bible Before I begin, let me say this article is not about religion, but about history. I am not a religious person, I am not interested in religion. It's high time black people got to begin un-learning lot of the information packed into our minds courtesy of long years of slavery and colonialism. It is time for the black race to rise and claim what is ours. History has been distorted extensively to downplay the contributions of black people to humanity. One glaring distortion is about the character called Jesus Christ in the bible, whom the ancient artists drew as a black man, ancient sculptors carved him as a black man, and even the bible itself described him as a black man in many passages. Before I go further, let me inform you that if you're a serious seeker and you're interested in digging deeper for the whole truth and nothing but the truth, no matter where it may lead to, then you'll need to first find out What
The True History of Slavery and Slave Acquisition in Africa By Africason (Information Europe & USA Don’t Want You to Know About Slavery) This message is for black people of non-African nationalities. I mean, black people in countries like Jamaica, USA, Haiti, Bahamas, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Uruguay, Bolivia, Argentina, Vanuatu, Paraguay, Grenada, Tuvalu, Solomon Islands, Chile, Peru, Panama, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Kiribati, Trinidad and Tobago, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Guatemala, Lucia, Sri Lanka, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Maldives, Honduras, Nicaragua, Barbados, Tonga, Panama, Samoa, Nauru, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Martinique, Puerto Rico, Papua New Guinea, Fiji, India, and also people of ALL AFRICAN NATIONALITIES. I feel a great need to write this piece to unearth the truth about information which has been deleted from the history books about slavery, especially, how slave
Role of Christian missionaries in the colonization of East Africa Christian missionaries in East Africa (1). Missionaries signed treaties which were later used by colonialists to take over colonies e.g. Tucker, a British Missionary interpreted the 1900 Buganda Agreement to the regents of Kabaka Daudi Chwa II. This led to loss of political, economic and social powers to the British protectorate government. Sir Harry John stone who signed on behalf of the British government confessed that; “I John stone shall be bound to acknowledge the assistance offered to me by the missionaries especially the CMS. Without their assistance on my side, I do not think Uganda’s chiefs would agree to the treaty which practically places their country and land in the British hands”. (From partition of Africa by Prof Sempebwa). (2). Missionaries supplied information to the colonialists which they utilized to plan how to effectively impose their colonial rule on how to crash the African res
It is Time To Abolish The Commonwealth of Nations The commonwealth of nations is a colonial hangover. It's a legacy of enslavement of Africa This message is attention to the following commonwealth countries: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Cameroon, Cyprus, Dominica, Ghana, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Malta, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia. Before I begin, let me make it clear the United Kingdom together with Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa own the commonwealth and aren’t part of the addressee, except black South Africans forced into the unholy marriage with slave masters. It’s ve
Why The West Killed Patrice Lumumba Patrice Lumumba battling for his life in the hands of western engineered mobs Alexandra Valiente / February 6, 2012 Later this year, the Belgian Parliament is due to report on the murder of the Congo’s first prime minister after independence, Patrice Lumumba, in January 1961. The circumstances of Lumumba’s death have been shrouded in mystery for 40 years, but as the Congo’s vast mineral wealth is once again becoming a focus for imperialist rivalries, documents long hidden in official archives have been brought to light. Last year, the BBC ran two documentaries on the tragic history of this central African state. “Who Killed Lumumba?” was screened as part of the channel’s Correspondent series. It drew heavily on the forthcoming new book by Belgian historian Ludo de Witte (“The Murder of Lumumba”, Verso Books, ISBN: 1859846181, published June 2001). De Witte has put together the facts of the case from off