Tuesday, December 26, 2017

Education in Africa is Still Colonialism and Has Always Been

Education in Africa is Still Colonialism and Has Always Been
By Savo Heleta @Savo_Heleta

The movement to decolonise higher education — a coalition of students, progressive academics, university staff and concerned public — must find ways to hold the institutions accountable and maintain a nonviolent and intellectual struggle until Eurocentrism and epistemic violence at universities are dismantled.

Calls for decolonisation of universities have been long overdue. The movement to decolonise higher education was launched into the public sphere by students in 2015 and has been maintained by them and a small number of progressive academics ever since.

The fact that the students had to kick-start the campaign for decolonisation of the curriculum rooted in colonialism and apartheid — and not the university leaders, academics and administrators — tells a lot about the state of higher education in post-apartheid South Africa and the continued maintenance of the hegemonic status quo in the knowledge, teaching, learning and research at universities.

During colonial and apartheid days, education played a key role in promoting white supremacy and imposing Eurocentric worldviews.

Historical, intellectual and cultural contributions of Africa and other parts of the “non-Western” world were subjugated.

Historically white universities either gave full support to the colonial and apartheid systems or enjoyed their liberal white privilege and benefits while the majority was subjugated and exploited.

Historically black universities were established and maintained to train black people to serve the colony and later the apartheid state.

Governance systems, academic agendas and the curriculum were imposed by the government and driven mainly by white academics and administrators.

One would think that things would change after 1994. But according to the 2008 Report of the Ministerial Committee on Transformation and Social Cohesion and the Elimination of Discrimination in Public Higher Education Institutions, universities have done very little since the demise of apartheid to open up “to different bodies and traditions of knowledge and knowledge-making in new and exploratory ways”.

The report adds that, because the curriculum “is inextricably intertwined with the institutional culture and, given that the latter remains white and Eurocentric at the historically white institutions, the institutional environment is not conducive to curriculum reform”.

Years later, the curriculum remains rooted in oppressive know-ledge systems and disconnected from African realities, including the lived experiences of the majority of black people.

What we have in most fields of study is Eurocentric indoctrination that marginalises Africa and is often full of patronising views and stereotypes about the continent.

Unashamedly, universities still follow the hegemonic “Eurocentric epistemic canon” that “attributes truth only to the Western way of knowledge production”. When Africa appears in the curriculum, it’s not more than a “version of Bantu education … students are being taught a curriculum which presumes that Africa begins at the Limpopo, and that this Africa has no intelligentsia worth reading”. These are academic and political commentator Mahmood Mamdani’s words written in 1998. Not much has changed since then.

Epistemic violence persists in post-apartheid South Africa where the higher education system has obliterated most linkages that black students may have with the prescribed texts, propagated narratives, debates and learning on the one side and their history, lived experiences and dreams on the other.

In the old colonial fashion, they are the “other” in their country of birth, not recognised and valued unless they conform. Through education, they are expected to learn to “speak well”, gain skills and Eurocentric knowledge that will allow them to enter the marketplace but not allow them to make fundamental changes to the status quo in the society and the economy.

Decolonisation aims to engage with the diverse experiences and perspectives in every culture and part of the world instead of blindly following the Western “universalism” and the notion that Europe and the West are the source of all knowledge.

The curriculum must be free from the Western epistemological domination, Eurocentrism, epistemic violence and worldviews that were designed to degrade, exploit and subjugate people in Africa and other parts of the formerly colonised world.

Former University of the Free State vice-chancellor Jonathan Jansen’s words from 1998 still ring true: “Content matters, and it matters a great deal when a European-centred curriculum continues to dominate and define what counts as worthwhile knowledge and legitimate authority in South African texts and teaching; it matters very much in the context of the inherited curriculum, informed by apartheid and colonialism, in which only the more readily observable, offensive racism has been skimmed off the top.”

Lesley le Grange of Stellenbosch University notes that decolonisation is about decentring the Western knowledge systems and ensuring that they “become one way of knowing rather than the way of knowing”.

A decolonised curriculum must place South Africa and Africa in the centre of teaching, learning and research and incorporate the epistemic perspectives, knowledge and thinking from the African continent and the Global South and place them on an equal footing with the currently hegemonic Eurocentric canon.

Through decolonised curriculum, we must address the past and current structural domination and oppression in South Africa, Africa and the world — and develop the skills needed to overcome these in the future.

As former president Kgalema Motlanthe points out, we need to “reconstruct the African story based on its past, in a manner that does not seek to engage in a feel-good, nationalist historiography but challenges the prevailing climate of falsehoods, distortions and outright lies about our continent generally and black Africans in particular”.

Where to find academics and administrators capable of addressing deep-rooted epistemic violence and injustices at universities? Notwithstanding the newfound commitment to decolonisation of education frequently proclaimed by South African universities, many in the academia don’t even understand what decolonisation entails.

When it comes to knowledge about Africa, most of South Africa’s white academics are intellectually and academically completely out of touch. They have very little to contribute to the decolonisation project because they still believe that the Western knowledge systems constitute the only basis for higher forms of thinking.

Although the epistemological transformation and decolonisation depend on significant transformation in academia, this does not necessarily guarantee fundamental change. The leadership change at many universities — from white to black, Indian or coloured vice-chancellors, their deputies or deans — hasn’t so far led to significant changes when it comes to dismantling Eurocentrism and epistemic violence.

What South Africa needs are academics and administrators with a decolonial stance. The challenge is that they are a minority at universities. Many in academia come from the old system that worked hard to maintain apartheid and white domination; some have enjoyed white privilege while claiming to be against apartheid or, in the case of many black academics and administrators, were indoctrinated during apartheid.

Higher education will not be decolonised overnight, as the students are demanding. This will be a long and arduous struggle, possibly requiring new generations of academics and administrators — who were not part of the old oppressive system and who are representative of the country’s demographics — to reach senior positions at universities.

Not all is lost, however. Even though the opposition to change is entrenched in university structures and will not easily allow the breaking down of power, influence and decision-making, the struggle to decolonise universities must go on.

The debates about decolonisation make many at universities uncomfortable. This is necessary because change will not happen if people are comfortable with the status quo.

Social and structural change seldom happens without activism, advocacy, dissent, disruption and protest. The powerful and influential don’t give in because it is the right thing to do; they only act when they are compelled to do so by social movements and masses.

Progressive academics and lecturers must take the lead and not wait until the institutional cultures and environments transform. They need to decolonise their own curriculum and democratise the learning space in which they operate.

Writer Sisonke Msimang says that “radical departures from the status quo are never easy. They are always simultaneously symbolic and visceral. But they open up new possibilities for questioning what was once unquestioned and unquestionable.”

This is exactly what the higher education system needs today.
Source: https://thejournal.org.za/index.php/thejournal/article/view/9/31
Africason is a musician and a die-hard believer in Africa.
Twitter: @African_School
e-School: www.AfricanSchool.org
Facebook: facebook.com/AfricanSchool
Find my songs on iTunes: Artiste name: Africason 

Monday, November 6, 2017

EXPLOITATION: How Europe Laid The Foundation For Poverty in Africa

Brief history of exploitation of Africa by western interests
(EXPLOITATION: How Europe laid the foundation for poverty in Africa)

Chartered colonial companies............

Chartered companies were companies that received certain rights and privileges under a special charter issued by the sovereign of a European state. This charter usually gave the company a nationally recognized trading monopoly for a specific geographic area and for specific trade items, and the right to use force to open and maintain trade. Dominant in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and from 1880 to 1900- the eras of mercantilism and of the ”scramble for Africa,” respectively- royally chartered companies proved to be indispensable tools for the opening of Africa to European commercial and imperial ambition.

As a way to defray government costs, European exploits in Africa from 1340 until 1900 were usually funded by high-risk venture capital in the form of royally chartered companies, the forerunners of the modern corporation. The crown provided political support and authorization for overseas business but the economic risks and military expenses were borne by private individuals and corporations. After 1600 large chartered companies like the Dutch West India Company, the Royal African Company, and the Portuguese Guinea Company created permanent strongholds on the coasts of Africa, though they had to form alliances with local African states in order to prosper. After 1870 the imperial ambitions of chartered companies like the British South Africa Company and the Royal Niger Company paved the way for Europe’s formal colonization of most of the African continent.


The European discovery of the Canary Islands off the west coast of Africa in the early 1330s prompted impoverished Spanish nobles, with financial backing from investors and royal charters from various monarchs, to organize repeated invasions of the islands until the final conquest of the native inhabitants in 1496 under a charter granted by the sovereign of Castile. The charter provided royal authorization for the invasion without costing the monarch any money. The invaders assumed governmental powers and were authorized to collect rent and taxes for themselves, their investors, and the monarch. Throughout their history chartered companies demonstrated that the relationship between entrepreneurship and violence was ever-present in the European engagement with Africa. While trade and profit were dominant elements in the exchanges between the two continents, state-sanctioned violence achieved far more than entrepreneurial activity could do alone.

Leaving the Canary Islands to the Spanish, the Portuguese established a fort at Elmina near the deltas of the Volta and Niger rivers in 1482 and became involved in the inter-African slave trade. Italian and Portuguese investors, excited by the strong European market for sugar, obtained charters from the Portuguese crown to develop sugar plantations on the islands of Sao Tome, Principe, and Fernando Po, which lay off the coast of tropical Africa. Unable to attract Europeans as a workforce, they relied on Portuguese connections with African commerce to supply African slave labor. In the year 1500, these islands became the first true plantation societies in the Atlantic.

By the mid-1500s Dutch, Flemish, and German capitalists had entered the sugar boom that had shifted to the Portuguese colony of Brazil. The famous Triangle Trade had begun: Africa imported European capital, manufactured goods, and weapons and exported labor in the form of slaves, while the plantation colonies in the Americas specialized in the mass production of a few tropical products (sugar, tobacco, cacao, coffee, and indigo) for the European market and imported capital, labor, and supplies. Chartered companies like the Portuguese Guinea Company and the Dutch West India Company became the main suppliers of African slaves to the New World in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries respectively, whereas the English dominated the slave trade in the eighteenth century.

England and the Netherlands underwrote their colonial expansion between 1600 and 1800 by creating chartered joint-stock companies. These new types of chartered companies allowed larger amounts of capital to be raised; they separated stock ownership from management, and investors could sell stock instead of liquidating the firm periodically to retrieve assets and profits. In a hallmark of an emerging capitalist economy, the new chartered companies built up and reinvested their capital rather than redistributing all the invested capital and profits back to their owners after each voyage. In the tradition of earlier chartered companies, these new chartered companies were licensed to trade and to make war to promote trade. The Dutch and English chartered companies, following earlier Portuguese practice, tapped into indigenous trade networks and maintained relations with African states in Benin, Oyo, and Kongo. Their presence created a growing African market for European hardware, textiles, and weapons, for which Africans traded gold, ivory, and slaves.

These new chartered companies, like the Dutch West India Company (WIC; founded 1621), had a legal monopoly on imports from Africa back to the home country and a license to seek monopolies in other markets, using armed force if necessary. They maintained standing armies and forts in addition to carrying out routine business transactions. The Dutch state chartered the WIC to conduct economic warfare against Spain and Portugal by striking at their colonies in the Americas and on the west coast of Africa. The state granted the company a monopoly on Dutch trade in the Atlantic region between the Americas and Africa and empowered it to negotiate treaties and make war and peace with native rulers, appoint governors, and legislate in its territories. With military and financial support from the government, the WIC acquired ports on the west coast of Africa to supply slaves for plantations in the Americas. Because of intense Portuguese, English, and French competition, the WIC was never able to monopolize the supply of slaves from Africa. No chartered company ever was.

Most chartered companies lasted no more than a generation or two. The longest-lived in Africa was the Dutch East India Company, which founded a restocking station for its East India ships at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. When the company dissolved in 1799, Cape Town formed the nucleus of European (Boer) settlement of the Cape Colony in South Africa. The second-longest-lived chartered company in Africa was the WIC (1621-1674), which folded due to debts incurred by long wars with the Portuguese and other European powers and the loss of key trading posts destroyed or captured by rival European nations. Parliament chartered the Royal African Company (RAC) in 1672 as the English slave-trading monopoly after a similar venture in the 1660s failed due to war with Holland. The monopoly was limited to London merchants, but merchants from Bristol and Liverpool lobbied successfully to have the monopoly charter ended by 1713—even though supporters of the monopoly argued that it ensured profits needed to build ships, maintain African trading settlements, and pay attractive dividends to shareholders, and that the highly advantageous trade between England and its colonies relied on the military protection of RAC forts on the coast of Africa. The RAC continued to engage in the slave trade, however, until 1731.

Europe and Africa were changed by the activities of chartered companies. The slave trade provided the kingdoms of coastal Africa with foreign exchange that soon exceeded their earnings from traditional exports like gold, pepper, ivory, and cotton cloth. As the Atlantic slave trade expanded from a few dozen slaves a year in the 1520s to ninety thousand a year in the 1780s, it allowed African elites on the Atlantic coast to buy European ironware, luxury goods, textiles, and weapons (to the tune of thousands of muskets a year in the 1780s). This trade, facilitated by European chartered companies, did not undermine African independence so much as it changed the balance of power between African states. The great empires of the interior grasslands like Mali and Songhay lost revenue and began to disintegrate when trade was diverted to the Atlantic kingdoms of Benin, Oyo, and Kongo, which became richer and acquired new military technology. The economies of interior states weakened as families and work were disrupted by massive forced abductions of people. Initially Africa’s Atlantic trade was a reciprocal exchange of commodities, but soon that exchange was overshadowed by the slave trade. An estimated ten to eleven million Africans were sent to the Americas as slaves between 1443 and 1870 by chartered companies and millions more died on the forced marches to the coastal ports.

Europe was also caught up in the transformations brought by chartered companies. Europeans controlled each leg of the Triangle Trade and enormous wealth was consolidated by European investors as a result. That control was fostered by chartered companies and the economic ideas of mercantilism they embodied. Mercantilism held that there was a fixed amount of wealth in the world, measured by possession of gold and silver, and that each country had to fight to obtain as large a share of this wealth as possible, aided by government policies that limited imports and promoted exports to create a favorable balance of payments. Economics was war by other means: Colonies and fortified trading stations existed to provide revenue for the mother country and to ensure that the trade was as monopolistic as possible, in order to keep gold and silver at home. Competing and aggressive chartered companies could not maintain secure monopolies, but the transfer of credit and profits around the world that they facilitated was a major step in the rise of a modern capitalist world economy. As the costs of war making soared in the eighteenth century, however, British and Dutch chartered companies staggered under the burden and they were all bankrupted by the 1830s: they did not outlast Britain’s abolition of the Atlantic slave trade in 1807 and of slavery in 1833.


After a brief hiatus, chartered companies were once again the vanguard and spur of imperial ambition when Europeans took direct control of Africa after 1880. Europeans colonized Africa under the impetus of the Long Depression (1873-1896), a world economic crisis that sparked the creation of monopolies and cartels and new colonial empires and monopoly trading relations in Africa as ways to stabilize the profitability of the new industrial capitalism. Chartered companies played a vital role in these territorial annexations and in the securing of sources of raw materials and valuable minerals for European nations.

The rise of Germany, Belgium, and Italy as industrial powers after 1870 accelerated the tempo of colonial growth as these nations sought protected markets and sources of raw materials for their industries in a depressed world economy. Britain, fearing these new colonial challengers, joined the colonial scramble in Africa. Belgium’s claim to the Congo River basin and Germany’s annexationist activities on the west and east coasts of Africa prompted a conference in Berlin in 1884 to lay out ground rules for annexations. Article 35 of the Berlin Act stated that a mere claim to territory was not enough for international recognition of a colony. Under the doctrine of ”effective occupation” the colonizer had to prove that it had authority over a colony, and thus European monarchs turned to chartered companies to ensure effective economic and political occupation. This new political climate induced the Portuguese to set up chartered companies like the Companhia de Boror to secure their four-hundred-year-old claim to Mozambique.

After the Berlin Conference, Britain concentrated its colonizing efforts on the Niger and southern African regions (the centers of its commercial activity in Africa) and on Kenya, France focused on the area between Senegal and Lake Chad, and Germany sent chartered companies to Togo, Cameroon, South-West Africa, and Tanganyika. The most effective and successful chartered companies were British, such as the Royal Niger Company and the British South Africa Company. They secured Britain’s empire in Africa.

Building on the commercial ideas of George Goldie (1846-1925), the Royal Niger Company (RNC), chartered in 1886, amalgamated British business interests in the lower Niger region. Its charter of incorporation authorized it to administer the Niger delta and the country along the banks of the Niger and Benue Rivers. Palm oil was a major export and the main imports were cloth and alcoholic beverages. The company secured its monopoly of trade in the area of present-day Nigeria against French and German competitors by concluding treaties, some of doubtful legality, with local rulers. In negotiations with the French and German governments Goldie set the boundaries of the British sphere of influence. The establishment of trading stations in the interior, contrary to earlier agreements, resulted in African uprisings against the RNC in 1886 and 1895, which were put down with gunboats, the company’s police force, and ships of the Royal Navy. The continuation of the RNC’s commercial and territorial disputes with France and the continuing complaints of local peoples against the company caused the British government to revoke the company’s charter in 1899, but by then Britain had effectively occupied the lower Niger region.

Another British commercial adventurer, Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902), received a charter for the South Africa Company (SAC) in 1889 with the object of acquiring and exercising commercial and administrative rights in south central Africa. The charter, initially granted for twenty-five years, gave the company rights to make treaties, promulgate laws, acquire economic concessions, establish a police force, and provide, at the company’s expense, the infrastructure of a new colony initially in Matabeleland (now part of Zimbabwe) but extending as far as current-day Zambia, Malawi, and Botswana. Mineral wealth (gold and diamonds), communications (a Cape-to-Cairo railroad), and white settlement were Rhodes’s objectives. Gold and diamond mining was the company’s main business and by 1900 SAC was administering Southern and Northern Rhodesia. Company rule ended in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in 1923, when partial self-rule for whites was implemented; in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) it ended in 1924, when the Colonial Office assumed control. By then, the activities of the SAC had secured British control and claims on this area of southern Africa.

In the final analysis, the development of the chartered joint-stock company, forerunner of the modern corporation, was instrumental in European commercial and colonial incursions into Africa. Chartered companies in Africa aided the emergence of a European-centered global capitalism that required African labor, commerce, and colonies to thrive, but which took more from Africa than it gave in return.

Source: http://what-when-how.com/western-colonialism/chartered-companies-africa-western-colonialism

Africason is a musician and a die-hard believer in Africa.
Twitter: @African_School
e-School: www.AfricanSchool.org
Facebook: facebook.com/AfricanSchool
Find my songs on iTunes: Artiste name: Africason 

Thursday, September 14, 2017

Why Europeans Were Able to Conquer Africa And the Rest of the World

Why Europeans Were Able to Conquer Africa And the Rest of the World.
Message to Africans and black people elsewhere (Part 1) 

Someone recently asked me a question saying "If blacks were already everywhere across the world like you claim, and had ships thousands of years before the Caucasians, I expect that they should have been a little more advanced. I expect that they should also have been able to defend themselves with these things and it should not have been easy for the Europeans to come into their lands and conquer them. Not only conquer them, but also go to their "brothers" lands as well and conquer them also.  Please explain to me how the Europeans were able to trump up blacks that were light years ahead of them according to you".

That's a good question!. 

This message, therefore, is meant for those Africans and black people elsewhere who've bought European version of history, line, hook, and sinker. It is for those who the education system has denied the true history of Africa, those who still hold the wrong impression that white people civilized us and brought us everything in Africa.

I want to answer this question conclusively because I've observed many Africans don't know Africa was once ahead of Europe in technology, science, academics, commerce, world power, wealth, everything, I mean everything. But it is actually easy to understand "why" if you study history. When I say history I don't mean the standard history they'll teach you in school in Africa. There are other ancient African histories and chronology of events that Europeans wish we Africans don't know. This chronology and chain of events that led to our present situation in Africa is what I'll explain throughout this article. If you want to understand it and to teach others, make sure you also watch the videos below in the order its posted. You can watch the videos as you read or watch them when you finish reading but watch them serially. That's key.

First of all, it is not a theory that black people had been on the planet before any other race. It is a scientific fact proved by the science of archaeology, genetics, paleontology. These branches of knowledge have all proved beyond any doubt that human life originated in Africa, and that the first humans ever lived had lived in Africa. It was from here in Africa that we populated the rest of the world. Therefore, black people had been on this earth alone for millions of years before white people arrived the scene. I didn't say so, white people themselves say so.

See using DNA to trace human origin and migration. Then, click through 1-19 to learn. Alternatively, you may watch below video. It was summarized in the video (9 minutes only).

The video below shows how the science of genetics is used to trace human ancestry via DNA. Its the same techniques used by forensic scientists in law enforcement all over the world to identify criminals once their DNA specimen collected from a crime scene. Everyone has a unique DNA and no two people in the world share the same DNA code. See the short video below.

Human ancestry made easy

Assuming you've seen the above video, be informed our defeat and subjugation didn't happen overnight. It all began from evolution (not evolution of life) but the evolution of how different cultures think, the evolution of what one society considers to be evil while the other consider same thing as non-evil. In other words, it had to do with the evolution of the extent one society could go to get what they want while justifying it. 

This's a huge history topic and I' am going to fast forward a lot of things just to get to the point..........

60, 000 years ago in Africa (sixty thousand)

About 60, 000 years ago, many Africans began leaving Africa, they began migrating into the Middle East and Europe in great numbers due to climate change. Science calls this Africans Modern man (homo sapiens) and they migrated or exodused out of Africa to Arabia, Eurasia, Australia, Asia, Brazil and the Americas, e.t.c.

Science confirms a massive exodus of people out of Africa. Please see a scientific research on African migration "out". See another research on African migration "in". It kept happening that way for a very long time until the world climate stabilized and people were able to live in a permanent location and were able to begin farming during what's called the Neolithic period.

These migrations happened for the same reason animals make seasonal migrations to and fro vast lands for reasons ranging from birthing or climate change. 

Migrating birds

Migrating zebras

Once upon a time, human beings made such migrations in and out of Africa and since we were the first people to inhabit the world, that means everywhere you saw a human being 60, 000 ago they'll be black people.

In the case of Africans, they were migrating to other parts of the world because at that time the world climate wasn't stable. There was severe and erratic climatic change happening then, such that sometimes it would rain a whole month non-stop and people would be terrified as it seemed the whole earth was inundated by water. Ancient civilizations like the Incas and Mayans in South America, China, Africa, e.t.c all recorded global inundations, even the bible recorded it. This rain and inundation could also turn to severe drought in a blink of an eye.

12, 000 years ago in Europe (twelve thousand)

At a time, about 12,000 years ago, Africans moved into Europe again, but this time something bad happened. They were trapped by sudden ice in what is called the last ice age. There were several ice ages, some say 3 ice ages, others say 4 ice ages, but that's not very important. What's important here is that Africans got trapped in Europe in the last ice age and were unable to return home. Remember, I said climate then was very erratic. Of course, not every African left Africa or got trapped in the ice age. Some people would have still returned to Africa. 

Caucus region in Europe- 12, 000 years ago

This is how entire Europe looked like 12, 000 years ago, and it was on this ice region that Africans got trapped, unable to trace their way back home, as they could not walk on ice or for what other reasons.

This is how entire Europe looked like 12, 000 years ago

In this region, you scarcely feel the sun, everywhere you look its all ice, and it is very cold. Temperatures could fall to -40 degrees Fahrenheit. Those people (Africans) trapped in the Caucasus mountains in Europe could not get adequate sunlight on their skin, so after living there for thousands of years they began losing their melanin, and their skin color began turning white. Melanin is what makes the skin of black people black. Lack of melanin is what makes the skin of white people white. Over several thousands of years of breeding among themselves, their gene mutated creating albinos who simply permanently became white. That's how the white race was created. 

Yes, albinos would be the right name to call them at that time. Albinism is a result of a genetic mutation that stops the skin from producing melanin, it depigments the skin, depriving it the ability to manufacture melanin. 

This African mother has children who their skin can't manufacture melanin. They're albinos. To create a white race, all you need to do is have them marry other albinos.

 African mother gives birth to albinos

As you can see above, black people are the only race that can produce people with different shades of skin color. Two white couple cannot give birth to a black man. 

If the above albino children grow up and marry other albinos, they'll give birth to more albinos. The only way to stop them from giving birth to more albinos would be to have them marry black girls.

Unfortunately, when the population of albinos appeared on the ice in Europe, they married among themselves. Imagine a situation where you have an albino marry another albino, and they have children who are albinos, and they also marry another albino and have children, and so on...... Eventually, you'll create a white race. That's exactly how black people created white people- literally.

For emphasis, melanin is gotten from sunlight and its the chemical element that makes the skin of black people black. And lack of melanin is what makes the skin of white people white. Nothing more, nothing less. Lack of melanin, therefore, means something has been taken away from the original man (Africans) trapped in the ice in Europe.

Those with melanin are generally happier, spiritual, artistic and cancer-free, which is why white people will go to any length to suntan their bodies at beaches around the world so that they could feel good like the original man of the earth. Ask them after leaving those beaches and they'll tell you they feel good and much happier about themselves. Let me not get ahead of myself here.

White people are simply black people who lost their melanin in the ice. That was the first change which was physical and could be seen.

Other non-physical changes also took place in their psychology, belief system, and the way they think of others. The type of society you live would influence your belief system in terms of what you'll perceive as wrong or right. For instance, in Singapore chewing a bubble gum is considered an offense. In Netherlands prostitution is legal, and there's nothing wrong with that. In Saudi Arabia its an offense for a woman to drive her car, e.t.c. Therefore, once those Africans departed Africa, and spread to different parts of the world, each group eventually evolved into a nation with different types of philosophies about life. You can imagine being cut off from the rest of the world, living in the ice region for thousands of years without proper sunlight, versus someone living in Africa with sunlight every day. Over many thousands of years, each group would think differently. And that's exactly what happened.

Two races have evolved

Now, two races have evolved- One BLACK and the other WHITE. Those evolving within the ice region evolved with a different philosophy of life, while those who remained in Africa and anywhere else in the tropics also evolved with a different philosophy of life.

Those evolving in the ice region (now called white people) lived in a hostile ice region where food was scarce, all they had was ice and mountains. No vegetation, no food, maybe some polar bears. If you have ever been hungry for a day without any idea where your next food would come from, you'll understand how hunger can change your psychology,  make you unhappy and desperate to find your next meal by all means. Over many years of living your life that way, you'll become aggressive and militaristic in nature. Unfortunately, that's exactly what happened to them. They became a militarized society!. I'll get back to that soon.

Everything was a huge challenge to them, even walking was a challenge as they could not walk barefoot on ice. No matter how well adapted on the ice, a human being still cannot walk barefoot on ice. Doing so would result in death, whereas we could walk and even run barefoot on the ground in Africa and go wherever we want.

They couldn't grow food, cause plants can't grow on the ice. So, they began a war against nature, they began to conquer their environment in order to survive. War against nature meant that they must develop technology to survive against the elements. In other words, they must work harder and must be more inventive to meet their needs, and to do that they must be scientific in nature. Necessity is the mother of invention. And when you have a need and desperate, it makes you more creative. Note that I don't mean creative in terms of art, but being creative in solving real need their lives depended on; like inventing how to grow food on top of ice, like inventing shoe to walk on ice, like inventing how to make fire on ice, e.t.c. These are not easy tasks, even now. It was either they discover how to solve these things or die. It was a matter of life or death for them. 

Let me emphasize here, this didn't make them more intelligent than the Africans they left, rather, it put them in a situation to begin inventing ways to fabricate tools to solve basic needs that those in Africa took for granted. If we evolved on top of ice in Africa, we would have done exactly the same. In fact, some scholars have argued, if we evolved on ice in Africa, we may have become like Europeans and may have invaded the rest for the world stealing from them. That would be a good topic for debate for philosophers, anthropologists, historians, and psychologists.

Also, no vegetation means no food, so they must be selfish with whatever little they have, they must be ready to fight one another to defend their food supply as a hungry man could come to steal another's food. So, they were hostile, greedy, needy, selfish, aggressive in nature. Eventually, they became a militarized society to the extent one's reputation depended on how many wars they've waged, and how many people he/she has subdued- which is why slavery originated in the caucus mountains as well. Slavery began in Europe as a result of stronger people in society owning the weaker people as property. The first slaves were called serfs. These serfs were not free, they were owned by a (strong man) who owned plenty of farmlands, which is where the word ''landlord'' originates. The serfs worked for free for the landlord till death. This was later to lead to the Atlantic slave trade when slavery ended in Europe. The Atlantic slave trade happened because when slavery ended in Europe, the landlords simply moved their business overseas in South America, North America, Africa, India, Australia. See the true history of slavery and slave acquisition in Africa

Societies in the caucus mountains evolved such that the more wars you've waged, the more serfs (slaves) you've acquired, the more you've looted others, the higher your ranking in society. It was a "dog eat dog" situation. This is why you'll later hear that:-

Julius Caesar conquered.....

Alexander the great conquered....

Vikings conquered.....

William the conqueror conquered.....

Napoleon Bonaparte conquered....

Emperor Claudius conquered....

Henry II conquered....

Knight Templars conquered.....

The Crusaders conquered....

Christopher Columbus conquered.....

Spanish conquistadors (conquerors) conquered....

Rome conquered...

Greece conquered...

Adolph Hitler conquered....

Britain conquered.....

France conquered.....

Portugal conquered.....

Spain conquered......

The list is endless.

Unfortunately for us, they made huge technological advancement in the process of building war machines to kill themselves.

Their nature was to vandalize each other's property and kill one another for survival. As a matter of fact, the word Vandalism and Barbarism were derived from Caucasian tribes. Vandals are of German origin, while ''Barbarians'' was a general term used to describe early European way of life. They called each other these names due to their unending appetite for destruction of lives and property. 

European medieval antiquities are war paraphernalia, not fine art

The more armory you have, the higher your prestige in medieval Europe

See Medieval Weapons & Armour in Europe. Africa was mostly peaceful at the time Europeans were building those weapons, therefore, we had no need inventing such.

This is a long history and I don't want to get into all that.  But, bottom line, as I'll explain, white people would use their militaristic nature to build weapons of war that they'll later use to conquer the easy-going peaceful black people in Africa and others in the tropics. I'll get to that soon.

1, 617 years ago in Europe (one thousand six hundred and seventeen)

If you want to understand what a lawless and militaristic society Europeans has evolved into by the 400 ADs, please watch the documentary below about the dark ages. By the time of the dark ages, Europeans had evolved into something else not worthy to be called humans. Their way of thinking was between animal and man. In fact, recent scientific research shows they actually inherited some percentage of Neanderthal genes. Neanderthals were partly animal and partly human that earlier lived in the caucus region. It is thought that Neanderthals interbred with homo sapiens. The question is; what percentage of animal gene do they have? Let me leave that for now in order not to come across as a racist, you can do your own research if you want to pursue that information further.

During the dark ages in Europe, they invented all sort of ways to torture and kill themselves- something they'll later export to the rest of the world to subdue indigenous people wherever they went. Today, they do have the Museum of Medieval Torture Instruments. This museum is located in Prague the capital of Czech Republic, and anybody can go see for themselves. See here for some killing machines invented in the dark ages and also this link.

The documentary below shows what those Africans trapped in the ice (Europeans) had become about 55, 000 years after they left Africa. I'll encourage all mis-educated Africans who think Europeans brought us civilization to watch the documentary in order to correct their impression of black people being uncivilized at that time. If you understand the history of the dark ages in Europe, you'll understand no race can surpass Europeans in savagery.

The dark ages in Europe 400 AD - 1200 AD

Again, its very important those mis-educated Africans who have been schooled to believe Europeans brought us civilization, see the above documentary to learn how savage Europeans themselves were, shortly before they arrived in Africa. They need to see the above documentary to understand Europeans could never have brought us civilization since themselves were not civilized. 

In 11th century Britain, not only did British people practice cannibalism, but they also sold human meat openly in the market as a result of famine. 

As late as 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus, a scientist, was publicly burnt to death in Europe, for believing the earth is round, and that it orbits the sun.

In 1649, Britain executed their king, Charles I, by cutting off his head in public to a cheering crowd. After his head was cut off, many in the crowd dipped their handkerchiefs and clothes to his rushing pool of blood so they could keep it as a souvenir. Talk of savagery!.

The list is endless. Till the 16th century, when they began arriving in Africa, Europe was the most uncivilized continent in the world. If you know the Emir of Kano, Sanusi Muhammad II, send him this article, cause he has been going about in conferences telling people the entire African continent was at war and that it took Europeans to save us from ourselves. His education tells him so, but what he doesn't know is the infightings among African tribes were orchestrated by the same Europeans as a pretext for coming in to "save" us. In fact, that was their strategy for both slave acquisition and colonial domination. They (Europeans) themselves called it divide and rule, and it was a colonial policy they adopted in all their colonies. Europeans had hands in almost every war in Africa beginning from the 1500's. Yet, African wars fought with bows and spears looked like child-play when compared to European wars. Be informed, no ancient cultures surpassed Europeans in warfare and savagery.

Africans and others in the tropics inhabited the best part of the world

On the contrary, the people evolving in Africa and other locations in the tropics had easy access to food as we lived in forested region. We didn't have any pressing need to conquer our environment to survive, instead, we needed to preserve it to survive. As a result, we lived in harmony with nature, which also means that we didn't need a lot of technology to meet our needs. The saying "low hanging fruits" would be the best way to describe our surroundings at that time. We were naturally blessed with food, land, forest, good climate. We didn't lack anything required to sustain basic living, so we embraced nature in all it's glory instead of fighting against it to survive. Everywhere you looked around you, it was all forest with fruits to eat. Rodents and other animals are all there in the bush for your meat. African legend has it that there was this animal that used to sleep on the road to sunbath, and it wouldn't run when people pass. This animal was said to be so naive they called it "idiot" because it couldn't run. All you needed to do was see it, kill it and you have meat for you an family. Even children killed it.

African forested lands with lush vegetation

Jackfruits in Central African forests

Cocoa trees in Ghana forests

Various fruits to choose from in African forests

Fruits to eat are all over the place at arms length

The soil is fertile, your maize drop on the ground, next you see it germinates to a corn. There are streams, you put food on fire, you go to the stream to catch fish to cook your meal. What else could such a people do when bellyful? What else could they do other than spend the rest of their days being happy? So, as a result, we naturally had to spend more time singing,  dancing,  telling stories, drawing,  painting, all that's arts. We were peaceful, kind, welcoming, humane. We evolved being satisfied, we evolved being contented, because there was no need to be greedy or look for more. All you needed to do was go farther into the forest and you'll have free food for you and family. Some people have erroneously interpreted this as making us docile, but according to professor Kaba Hiawatha Kamene, this seeming docility is actually LOVE. We evolved as easy-going people so comfortable that we lived in love and care for each other, which shows in our extended family structure. This extended family structure in a larger sense became a society that always gathers for a festival.

Indeed, if you look across Africa even today you can still see this love and art in all forms of festivities by different African tribes. In Yorubaland you see it the different "odus". There's odu for naming ceremony, there's odu for marriage, there's odu for everything ......... meaning people were largely happy in that part of the world. Only a happy people could evolve into having so much festivities.

Dancing and festivity in Yorubaland- West Africa

In Igboland there's "emume" for new yam harvest, there's emume for cleaning the river, there's emume for carrying masquerades at a certain time of the year, ......... meaning people were largely happy in that part of the world. Only a happy people could evolve into having so much festivities.

African masquerade dance

In Mozambique or I think Malawi, they have festivities for the king to choose a bride.  

In Nigeria alone, these are few festivities:- Argungu Fishing Festival, Ikeji Arondizuogu, Calabar Carnival, Eyo festival, Igbo New Yam festival, Igogo Festival, Nnewi Afiaolu Festival, Ofala Festival, Osun festival, Sango festival, Sharo / Shadi Festival, new yam Festivals, new cassava festival, Port Harcourt Book Festival, Lagos Book and Arts Festival (LABAF), Aké Arts and Book Festival, Badagry Festival, Durbar festival, Sango Festival, Ogwashi Ukwu Carnival, Lagos Black Heritage Festival, wrestling festival, Lagos Photo festival, Abuja International Film Festival, Africa International Film Festival, Felabration, Gidi Culture Festival, Star Mega Jam, Agila Social and Economic Carnival, Argungu Fishing Festival, Eyo festival, FESTAC 77, Gidi Culture Festival, Igue festival, Imo Carnival, Ikeji Arondizuogu, Ojude Oba festival, Ogwashi Ukwu Carnival, Olojo festival, Oro Festival. This is to name a few. 

Kikuyus dance in Kenya

When the first rain comes, we celebrate. When the new yam is ready for harvest, we celebrate. When a child is born, we celebrate. Even when someone dies, we celebrate!. This clearly shows, Africans left on our own, have no room for sadness. There seems to be a festival for everything in Africa. That's how an idea world ought to be!. All day happiness!.

In other parts of Africa you have:- Aboakyir festival, Panafest, The Homowo Festival, The Hogbetsotso Festival, Bouake Carnival, Fêtes des Masques (Festival of Masks), Fête du Dipri, Festival-au-Desert, Festival on the Niger, Fête des Masques, Crossing of the cattle, International Camel Derby & Festival, Nairobi International Book Fair, Mombasa Carnival, Pharaonic Race, Abu Simbel Festival, South Sinai Camel Festival, Cairo Film Festival.

African dance exported to Trinidad and Tobago

In South Africa, the Zulu people even have a festival called Umkhosi woMhlanga where people show their singing and dancing skill. Only a happy people could evolve into having so much festivities.

African dance exported to America

Note: It's not that we weren't doing science. But even our scientists were using their skills in building pyramids, learning mathematics,  astronomy, and other things of sort, but not building weapons of war. If we chose to build a nuclear bomb, the hand that built the Egyptian pyramid could have built nuclear bomb to annihilate Europeans before their history even began. But we didn't. Instead, we built schools in Timbuktu, we built churches on stone in Ethiopia, we learned to sing and dance, we carved our history on stone and sculptured some on bronze- the Benin and Ife bronze works comes to mind. 

Our ancestors were also highly spiritual and moral freaks. The basic tenet of life revolved around being ethically and morally upright in everything you do. Observing such high moral standard was an unwritten law you necessarily must learn from childhood. In Kemet (modern-day Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia) it was called Maat.

In this principle of holiness (Maat), ancient Africa had 42 renunciations that a person was supposed to make at the time of judgment, after death. Our ancestors were culturally expected to honestly uphold an upright life and constantly recite the below statements in their minds.

(1). I have not done iniquity.
(2). I have not robbed with violence.
(3). I have not stolen.
(4). I have not made any to suffer pain.
(5). I have not defrauded offerings.
(6). I have done no murder nor bid anyone to slay on my behalf.
(7). I have not trimmed the measure.
(8). I have not spoken lies.
(9). I have not caused the shedding of tears.
(10). I have not dealt deceitfully.
(11). I have not acted guilefully.
(12). I have not laid waste to the land.
(13). I have not set my lips against anyone.
(14). I have not been angry or wrathful without a just cause.
(15). I have not lusted nor defiled the wife of any man.
(16). I have not polluted myself.
(17). I have not caused terror.
(18). I have not done that which is abominable.
(19). I have not multiplied words exceedingly.
(20). I have never uttered fiery words.
(21). I have not judged hastily.
(22). I have not transgressed nor have I vexed or angered God.
(23). I have not stopped my ears against the words of Right and Truth .
(24). I have not burned with rage.
(25). I have not worked grief.
(26). I have not acted with insolence.
(27). I have not avenged myself.
(28). I have not stirred up strife.
(29). I have not been an eavesdropper.
(30). I have not wronged the people
(31). I have done no harm nor have I done evil
(32). I have not worked treason.
(33). I have never fouled the water.
(34). I have not spoken scornfully.
(35). I have never cursed God.
(36). I have not behaved with arrogance.
(37). I have not envied or craved for that which belongs to another.
(38). I have not filched food from the mouth of the infant.
(39). I have done no hurt unto man, nor wrought harm unto beasts.
(40). I have never magnified my condition beyond what was fitting.
(41). I have not cursed my mother
(42).  I have not beat my parent

The above was written in their minds, and if you understand it, you can see how lovely and harmless such a society must have been. It was from reciting such tenets that Judaism, Christianity, and Islam got their practice of praying the rosary. In fact, it was from this ancient African spirituality that the three major religions- Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, evolved. For example; if you look closely at the above 42 renunciations (the ones in blue) you can see clearly the 10 commandments supposedly given to Moses at Mount Sinai was actually plagiarized from ancient African spiritually and doctrines. See the origin of the Bible's 10 commandments, Heaven, Hell.

Only a savage race would invest their intellect building weapons and bomb to kill as many people as possible. Only an uncivilized race would build killing machines, instead of making drums and learning to sing and dance and to be happy.

Unfortunately, art doesn't rule the world, science does. Science rules the world, not art. This's a message I' am trying to get Africans to understand. Africans need to understand that while art is good, but you can't rule the world with art. We're not doing badly when it comes to art, because we invented art. All forms of art were invented by Africans; music, literature, dancing, painting, e.t.c. The first people that did all these were Africans. Any white man or any mis-educated African who doubt it should visit Egypt to see for themselves. Over there, they're surviving earliest form of literature, dancing, painting, all invented by black people. You can't deny it!. Its written on stone!!. 

The Egyptian book of coming forth by day, dated 1, 550 BC
(the world's oldest form of literature)

The above book tells a story of what happens when people die. In 1887, a British scholar, Wallace Budge, stole the book from Africa. He didn't understand what was written inside, so he ignorantly called it the book of the dead, whereas the book is talking about resurrection, not death. The true name is exactly the opposite. It's the book of coming forth by day, the book of resurrection.

As a matter of fact, they don't even need to visit Africa to see our works, they should rather visit their own museums in Europe, cause museums across Europe are littered with stolen African arts and artifacts that European invaders stole from "uncivilized" people in Africa and the rest of the world. Our artworks and artifacts stand out in museums across the world and they have no rivals in the fine art it contains. Yet, some idiots would open their dirty mouths to say Africans didn't contribute anything to human civilization. 

Sculpture from Benin kingdom (West Africa) dated 1200 AD

African art- Ife bronze works (West Africa) dated 1200 AD

Ife bronze artwork (West Africa) dated 1200 AD

Look at the dexterity of these piece of arts!. Take a look at the lively look of the faces, the eyes, and the lips!. They're dated 1200 AD, just about the time Europeans came out of the dark ages. By this time, Europe has lost all knowledge as a result of 800 years of internecine wars. By this time, we were already ahead of Europe in all civilization had to offer. In fact, the whole world was ahead of them. Do you think the person that carved the above works in 1200 AD didn’t pass through a well established education about carving?

You can't see the above piece of works and not be marveled at the ingenuity and dexterity involved in creating them. And there's no sculptured or artwork any place in the world at that time that rivals that!. They're simply the best piece of artwork the world had to offer at that time in human history!.

Whoever made the above piece of artworks in 1200 ADs from Benin kingdom and Ife in Nigeria was a highly educated person in sculpture. It would have been impossible for an illiterate to create such a masterpiece at that time. Remember it was made with bare hands!. But there's no doubt that whoever designed it was well schooled about the art of sculpture, which is still being offered in colleges/universities today. As a matter of fact, Europeans were so marveled at Benin and Ife kingdom artworks that they believed they fell from the sky or made by some gods. Just look at it one more time and you begin to understand why it seemed to Europeans as an impossible thing at that time.

Even Egyptian arts are not a match to the dexterity in the above piece of works.

And you tell me Europeans brought us education? How could they have brought us education when their museums are filled with our artworks? Africans should ask Europeans; where are European artworks before you arrived in Africa? Demand that Europeans show you their fine arts and sculptures that they made before they arrived Africa. They have nothing significant to show in their own museums!. If you remove African artifacts from European museums, there would be nothing for them to display. 

Its very funny when you see sculpturing is still being offered in universities today across the world- something we mastered in Africa thousands of years ago. 

But, Europeans didn't evolve that way. Love was very far from them. If you travel to Europe you'll see all they have in public squares as historical monuments are war heroes and weapons of war. In their museums, all they have to show are war equipment and killing machines. And that's because their history is all about war. Even some of their sports evolved to be one man fighting another man till death, in what they called the gladiators. The gladiators were two sportsmen that had to fight each other to death while the crowd cheered and watched in excitement. Talk about savagery!. 

If you want to understand the psychology of Caucasians, watch the video below. Its a lecture by a British professor of history explaining the origin and nature of white people. He was being brutally honest from the beginning. However, he started lying later, praising the white race. I' am an advanced learner and knows such whenever I see it, so if anybody wants to watch, don't watch beyond 13:00 minutes, cause as I said he started embellishing the story from then onward. I'll encourage you to watch it, plus all the other videos shown in this article.

The nature and origins of white people

NOTE: One big lie he told before 13:00 minutes is that Europeans did not kill indigenous people wherever they went. That's a lie!. Everywhere Europeans settled, they called the indigenous people ABnormal original, from where the word aboriginal derives. So, they began killing the "abnormal original" people. That had to be done as a priority in order to reduce their population then subdue them. When Britain got to Australia, the population of the indigenous people (aboriginals) was 50,000 or more. Within 10 years of British arrival, the population of the aboriginals had reduced to just about 27 people. The same thing was done in Africa. When the Germans arrived in Namibia their population reduced by about half within 5 years. Please research the Herero and Nama genocide in Namibia. When Europeans got to the America's they used smallpox as an instrument of war, deliberately infecting the indigenous people with a disease they knew they (the indigenous people) had no cure.

As I said earlier, at a point, between 476 AD – 1200 AD, during the dark ages, Europeans invented all sorts of horrible ways of killing people as they wanted to annihilate each other by warfare. This is because they evolved with "winner takes it all" mentality. Anything could be done, including infecting someone with a disease just to overpower them and take their properties. As you learned in the above video, their society was all about self-aggrandizement and power, and there were no limits on what one could do to get power and influence. That's exactly the reason slavery originated in Europe, and they were later to export it to Africa. Please see the true history of slavery and slave acquisition in Africa.

Africans should go and learn history, including European history, and when they do, they'll realize Europeans themselves weren't civilized as at the time they were all over Africa claiming they brought us civilization.

Please take note that when you hear of European missionaries and the other invaders, they were not educated people. The invaders were of the lowest cadre in European societies who themselves were not educated or wealthy. Anybody willing to travel to a colony was qualified, including criminals. In fact, most of the invaders were convicted criminals released from prison, they were unwanted in Europe and had to be pushed down to Africa, the Americas, USA, Australia, South Africa, e.t.c. European governments needed to do so because their acts of savagery were needed in the colonies.

4,000 years ago (four thousand)

White people DID NOT BRING US ANYTHING good!. Before our unfortunate contact with Europeans, we already spoke and wrote in our own languages. Writing was invented in Africa. The first form of writing is called hieroglyphs and it started from (Kemet) the area known today as Sudan, Egypt, Ethiopia. 

The first universities in the world were all located in Africa, not in Europe!!. The first university on earth was located in North Sudan (Waset/Thebes/Luxor) where the Egyptian mystery system was studied by both Africans and foreign students from Greek, Arabia, and Asia. It was in this school that people like Pythagoras (Greek Mathematician) studied science.

Below is the remnant of the ancient temple of Waset (formerly North Sudan). The world's first institution of learning. The British came and renamed it Thebes, and the French came and renamed it Luxor. They renamed it cause what they always do is tell you the African name is "devilish" and must be renamed, and that's just one of the ways they imposed their will on indigenous people everywhere they went. This's the reason Dr. Chancellor Williams, in his book the destruction of black civilization, wondered whether we should just ignore the names given to African cities and nations by Europeans and keep calling them their original names.

Remnant of city of Waset, North Sudan dated 3200 BC
(the oldest metropolis in the world)

The remnant of Waset temple Africa- dated 3200 BC
(the oldest mega city in the world)

Behind those walls, Pythagoras (a Greek mathematician) learned mathematics, music, astronomy which he took back to Europe. If the walls could talk, they'll say so.

The only remnant of this ancient temple is antique pillars, as you can see above because the city is so old. This African city is at least 6,000 years old!. By the time this city was built, the entire Europe (except Greece) was an ice sheet with few primitive people hiding in caves.

The Greeks were the first civilized Europeans, they were the first white people to break out of the ice, they were the first to come study in Africa at the Waset temple. Foreign students in Africa included Pythagoras, Aristotle, Socrates. Basically, the first set of educated Europeans got their education in Africa.

There're other surviving ancient African universities and learning centers, though they're not as old as the Waset temple. Some of the schools are still standing there, and they are:- Al-Azhar University in Egypt (North East Africa), Sankore University in Timbuktu Mali (West Africa), Fez university in Morocco (North West Africa). These three universities predate almost any university in Europe. 

Indeed, Europeans and Asians studied in Africa and they said so. As mentioned earlier, Pythagoras wrote that he studied Mathematics in Africa along with many other Greek intellectuals of old. In the face of hard evidence though, Europeans eventually acknowledge the first university in the world was in Africa. See Guinness World Records for the oldest university in the world at http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/oldest-university 

What they don't even know is that Sankore university in Mali predates Fez university in Morocco, not to talk of the temple of Waset. According to Yosef Ben Jochannan, the Sankore University was originally built somewhere in ancient Ghana when they were part of the Songhai empire. In fact, nobody knows how many of such universities that were scattered all over Africa before slavery but is forgotten by history.

The first countries in the world to mine gold were Ghana, Mali, Egypt, Sudan and South Africa. It is we Africans that gave gold it's value i.e we were the first people on earth to make gold a precious item. Long before Europeans arrived Africa, we already had the technology to locate, mine, melt, refine, and mold gold and silver to all forms of shapes. We already knew that before our unfortunate contact with Europeans. And the science for refining gold has not changed!. Anybody refining gold today any place in the world applies the same science to refine gold that they learned from Africa.

This Egyptian pharaoh died over 2, 800 years before Europeans arrived in Africa. He was buried with 15 kilograms of gold in coffin decorations!.

Ancient African king Tutankhamun
Egyptian pharaoh's coffin made of real gold- dated 1323 BC

Wall paintings and Gold coffin designed in Africa 3, 340 years ago!

Coffin description:

The mask is 54 cm (21 in) tall, 39.3 cm (15.5 in) wide and 49 cm (19 in) deep. It is fashioned from two layers of high-karat gold, varying from 1.5–3 mm (0.059–0.118 in) in thickness, and weighing 10.23 Kilograms (22.6 lb). X-ray crystallography has revealed that the mask contains two alloys of gold: a lighter 18.4 karat shade for the face and neck, and 22.5 karat gold for the rest of the mask.

The beard was designed with 2.5 Kilograms (5.5 lb) of pure gold. Total gold used in burring this African king is estimated at least 15 Kilograms. In today's money, this African king was buried with about 2 million US dollars worth of gold!. And note, it wasn't buried to be exhumed later, rather, it was European scavengers running around African dustbins that picked it up in their early days in Africa.

We did not learn how to refine gold from Europeans, rather, they learned it from us. The prove is in their museums across Europe. They can't deny it. Its written on gold!.

In nowhere were Europeans better than us when they arrived Africa.

When Dutch explorer, Olfert Dapper, and others first arrived Bini kingdom in Nigeria in the 1600's, they were so shocked about the rate of development they saw over here, so much that their expedition leader had to report back to Europe saying ''The town seems to be very great. When you enter into it you go into a great broad street, well paved, which seems to be seven or eight times broader than the Warmoes street in Amsterdam.

The king’s palace is a collection of buildings which occupy as much space as the town of Harlem, and which is enclosed with walls. There are numerous apartments for the Prince’s ministers and fine galleries, most of which are as big as those on the exchange at Amsterdam. They are supported by wooden pillars encased with copper, where their victories are depicted, and which are carefully kept very clean.

The town is composed of thirty main streets, very straight and 120 feet wide, apart from an infinity of small intersecting streets. The houses are close to one another, arranged in good order. These people are in no way inferior to the Dutch. They wash and scrub their houses so well that they are polished and shinning like glass''.

This scenario wasn't peculiar to the Benin Kingdom. The Ashanti king in ancient Ghana kingdom was so rich that his official seat was made of REAL gold. Africa was extremely very prosperous before Europe made contact with us.

700 years ago (seven hundred)

Up till 700 years ago, Africa was so wealthy that the official seat of the Ashanti king in ancient Ghana was made of raw gold just like the Egyptians. Ancient Ghana, Ashanti kingdom, and Egyptians buried their kings/Pharaohs designing the caskets with gold. As you've seen above, we had enough gold to bury together with our dead!. Ghana today still maintain an elaborate burial ceremony spending thousands of dollars building coffins, though it is no longer adorned with gold.

We Africans already had our own established economic system, elites, rulers, scholars, language, commerce, e.t.c established thousands of years before Europeans arrived. We had our own governments, names, schools. We had everything!. Nothing was lacking!!.

700 years ago, the wealthiest man in the world was an African. The wealthiest man in the 1300's was Mansa Musa from Mali, not Bill Gates, not Amancio Ortega, not Warren Buffet. The wealthiest people on earth from 5,000 BC to 12th century were all Africans. By this time in human history, Europeans (except Greece) had hardly learned to read and write, not to talk of building ships to sail the world.

Mansa Musa was so wealthy that he made a trip to Mecca and shared gold to everybody along his way. By the time he returned from Mecca to Mali, he has given out so much gold that he crashed the price of gold worldwide. He gave out so much gold that gold lost it's value in the market. There was gold everywhere!

Mansa Musa is estimated to have been 40 times wealthier than Bill Gates, and he still holds the world record as the wealthiest man that ever lived.

It was this story of our lavish lifestyle in Africa at that time that attracted the attention of Europeans. News of wealth and riches in far away country had always enticed humans throughout history. Its the same way Mexicans today hear of wealth in USA and want to get into America by all means, same way Africans today are flocking into Europe, because of hope of better life. That's how Europeans wanted to get into Africa, by all means, beginning from the 16th century, because we had a higher standard of living over here and they wanted to come to Africa so they could live a better life. 

600 years ago (six hundred)

The fall

Suddenly, Europeans broke from the ice and they began spreading across the world like a plague. Soon, they discovered other cultures were living large in various part of the world in a good climate. They realized they lived in a hostile part of the world, while other parts of the world enjoyed sweet sunshine and lush forests, vegetation, and unending food supply. Africa and other parts of the world, therefore, became a destination for European merchants starting from the 1400's.

The first contact between Africa and Europe was gold and cash crop trade. It wasn't slavery or how to colonize us. Slavery and colonialism came much later when Europeans saw for themselves how blessed, innocent, and therefore, how vulnerable the African people were. We were so humane and innocent that the British colonial headmaster in Africa, Lord Lugard, wrote in his diary about Kikuyu people in Kenya, and he said "I had no hesitation in trusting myself almost alone among them, even when at considerable distances from the camp. I found them (Kenyans) honest and straight forward."............Lord Lugard.

As you can see, they saw we were very kind, welcoming, humane, and they were later to abuse our hospitality taking over our gold mines, sending our kings to exile, enslaving many. In fact, the motive for slavery and colonialism was not racism, it was ENVY. When you're on top there's envy...........Nas.

Everything changed once Europe made contact with us around 1400 AD. They unleashed their war ways and savagery on us. We became conquered and were no longer in charge of our destiny. Instead of developing our lands, African natural and human resources were being used to develop Europe. Therefore, we lost steam and were thrown into total darkness as a people for over 450 years!. But within this 450 years of our slavery, Europe entered the age of science, technology, and the industrial revolution, all made possible by the exploitation of Africa. Trains were built, cars built, advance in physics, chemistry, biology, e.t.c, all happened within this period. But, sadly Africa was never a part of this technological revolution. Just imagine where a people could not make a single development for 450 years!. Therefore, the rest of the world took over from us and gave us a big mile to cover. Within the 450 years of our slavery and colonialism, the world left us behind. We that used to be ahead became the ones running from behind. Ever since independence everything we do amounts to catching up with the rest of the world, because each day we still have 450 years mile gap to cover!. This's why today it appears we're forever behind.

And what marvels me is they always justify their crime no matter how illogical. In 1901, British colonial officer in Kenya, Harry Johnston, after stealing lands from Kenyans, wrote in a report and he said "here we have a territory now that the railway is built, admirably suited for a white man's country, and I can see this with no further injustice to any native race, for the country in question is utterly non inhabitable for miles and miles, or utmost its inhabitants are wandering hunters. This will be one source of profit to the United Kingdom"..........Harry Johnston (British colonial officer in Kenya).

The subjugation of black people did not happen due to intellectual superiority of white people over Africans. Rather, it happened by act or warfare and military might which we didn't have, as we didn't evolve building weapons of mass destruction, like Europe. We were highly intellectual people involved in arts, not building nuclear bomb. You fight a war with weapons and those who have weapons of war always wins a war. As I said earlier, white people evolved building those weapons to war against both themselves and others. Take, for instance, the origin of bomb. The Chinese and Africans invented gun powder which we used on burial days to give a final salute to the death. Nobody ever died firing the gun powder in China or Africa, because we could never conceive killing someone in mass. But, not Europeans!.

Once Europeans learned about the gun powder, they improvised it as a weapon of war, using it to manufacture bomb, and later that in turn inspired them to manufacture the first form of bullets. Yet, this technology had been in China and Africa for thousands of years and we never killed anyone with it!.

Black people had been on this earth for millions of years and no world wars, but in less than 600 years of the emergence of white people, we have had the first and second world war. There're talks of a third one. Their militaristic nature had always been the only way they subdued the indigenous people wherever they went.

Please, see below video. It shows how Europeans forcefully subdued harmless, innocent native people everywhere they went. This documentary is generally about gold, so only from 30:00 minutes to 44:35 minutes is relevant here. Of course, you can watch the full video.

How Europeans subdued and colonized native people everywhere they went

Using warfare and vandalism, Europeans stole from native people all over the world. That's why they got rich, and that's why we got poor.

In order for Africa to develop, we must find our way to science, because no nation can industrialize without science. We have art, but we don't have science. That's the real reason for poverty in Africa and other third world countries. Art doesn't rule the world. Science rules the world. This is a message I' am trying to see how I could get Africans to understand, but there's nobody to help me. The only way to get back on top is science. Nothing more, nothing less. See African school of grassroots science, which is a vision I've set out.

If you watch all the above videos and understand this post step-by-step, you'll understand we were conquered because the branch of the human family originating from the caucus mountains evolved with a different philosophy of life that included taking what does not belong to them. Secluded in the ice region for thousands of years, white people evolved being xenophobic, greedy, anarchist, militaristic in nature. They were later to use their military nature to conquer NOT ONLY AFRICA, but also Asia and the Americas. They also conquered China, India, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia, South America. These cultures; like Africa were all largely peaceful people living their lives.

"When an honest man and a crook have a dealing, the crook always wins" ........... Professor John. G. Jackson. 

 As they say "good guys finish last".

Written by Africason.
Africason is a musician and a die-hard believer in Africa.
Twitter: @African_School
Find my songs on iTunes & Amazon: Artiste name: Africason

To be continued in part 2 later...............................